explain the vi characteristics of a solar cell

Scope channel 1 measures the solar panel voltage with input 1+ connected to the + terminal of the panel and input 1- connected to the - terminal of the panel. This part of the lab will simulate how the solar panel is affected by varying amounts of cloud cover using sheets of somewhat transparent or translucent paper to simulate cloud thickness. From your I/V curves calculate values for the fill factor, FF, PMAX, maximum efficiency ηMAX (based on approximately 1mW/mm2for the incident light power) RS and RSH. Typically, the resistances at ISC and at VOC will be measured and noted, as shown in figure 6. In this article, we learn about PN junction diode characteristics in detail – like how to bias a PN junction (Forward & Reverse bias methods), behavior of PN junction during forward & reverse bias setups, how to plot the VI characteristics, what is reverse breakdown and many other essential concepts regarding a PN junction diode. This may take a little experimentation to center the signal ramp applied to the solar panel. In your lab report, compare the voltage (V) vs current (A) graphs for each panel position and note any differences. Such ideal cells require reaction kinetics fast enough to supply electrons at the rate demanded by the current drawn. RSH is represented by the slope at ISC. Maximum Power Point of Solar Cell. Early major users of fuel cells were NASA and the military because of their very specialized requirements and because the high cost of manufacture was not the main issue. The curve shows the turn-on and the buildup of the forward bias current in the diode. The theoretical studies are of practical use because they predict the fundamental limits of a solar cell, and give guidance on the phenomena that contribute to losses and solar cell efficiency. A more accurate model would include two diode terms, however, we will limit the model to a single diode for this discussion. 1 IRF510 NMOS power transistor (M1) Photo cell are of three types. when there is a short circuit between its Positive and Negative terminals. A Solar (PV) Cell or a Panel / Module produces its maximum current when there is no resistance in the circuit, i.e. Once you have fixed the position of the panel with relation to the sun it is NOT TO BE MOVED DURING THE EXPERIMENT. The configuration shown in figure 9 can measure only part of the I/V curve for panels with VOC greater than about 5V. Remember to convert the channel 2 voltage data to current by dividing by the value of R1 (10Ω). Measure the amount of current flowing through, and power output of your photovoltaic panel over time. Maximum efficiency is when power delivered to the load is PMAX. The short circuit current is a function of the PN junction area collecting the light. Figure 5 - Effect of changing RSH & RS from ideality. 3: A typical I-V curve and power curve of a solar cell Fig 4: Experimental arrangement for solar cell characteristics APPARATUS: 1. <> Photovoltaic cells can be arranged in a series configuration to form small modules, and modules can then be connected in parallel-series configurations to form larger arrays. For a module or array of solar cells, the shape of the I/V curve does not change. Scope channel 2 measures the current by measuring the voltage across 10 Ω resistor R1 with input 2+ connected to the source terminal of M1 and input 2- connected to the - terminal of the panel. A solar module can be seen as a black box that with two connectors, producing a current, I, at a voltage, U. The circuit connection for determining the V-I characteristics of a pn junction is shown in the figure below. Figure 9, solar panel measurement circuit. Solar Cell I-V Characteristics Curve diode in absence (dark) and in presence of light currents … http://users.df.uba.ar/sgil/physics_paper_doc/papers_phys/e&m/I-V_measure_solar_cell.pdf %PDF-1.5 You will need this to estimate the amount of input power from the sunlight. This may not always be practical depending on the computer used with the Discovery hardware. 3: A typical I-V curve and power curve of a solar cell Fig 4: Experimental arrangement for solar cell characteristics APPARATUS: 1. %���� cathode (K) and anode (A). ... compared to the solar power input, P in, into the PV cell. x���MO�0���� ��;���J�+`Y��! �)I%k$K�Am%#F��G�� �����,�ڪ֕Y��a�H�%�������{#ݪ��D�o��ź^�L��}_H�ڶ������"����j�Y/g�=�ʥ͉��r���� uM�e>|�ϗ����jb8n|Jt��}�C��j�"J_"�uꥱ�$ The conventional single diode model for solar cell with series and shunt resistance is used for illustration. The current-voltage (I-V) curve for a PV cell shows that the current is essentially constant over a range of output voltages for a specified amount of incident light energy. Explain the characteristics of solar cell. Multiple PN junctions are connected in series in a larger solar panel to produce higher voltages. Fuel cells replaced battery power as a power source on the shorter flights of the Mercury space program, which preceded Gemini. You will be looking to see if there is a mathematical relationship between cloud thickness and voltage output of the panel. In this lab you should investigate how changing the angle of your panel varies the amount of current produced by the panel, and how that would relate to a typical energy bill. Wiki, Activity: Characteristics of Photovoltaic Solar Cells, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_solar_cells, http://pveducation.org/pvcdrom/characterisation/introduction, http://users.df.uba.ar/sgil/physics_paper_doc/papers_phys/e&m/I-V_measure_solar_cell.pdf, http://www.mathworks.com/help/physmod/elec/ref/solarcell.html?searchHighlight=solar+cell, http://www.intusoft.com/nlhtm/nl78.htm#The_Solar_Cell_SPICE_Model, http://www.jameco.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/Product_10001_10001_1928142_-1, http://www.tigerdirect.com/applications/SearchTools/item-details.asp?EdpNo=4368549&csid=_61. Because the output terminals are shorted, the output voltage is 0 V. For an open output, the voltage, VOCis maximum (0.6 V) in this case, but the current is 0 A, as indicated. The theory of solar cells explains the process by which light energy in photons is converted into electric current when the photons strike a suitable semiconductor device. This one comes prewired with a power plug. This measurement setup will work for solar panels with open circuit voltages less than 5 volts. So the efficiency of practical solar cells peaks at some finite light concentration level. Power NMOS transistor M1 along with resistor R2 acts as a source follower. Just about any panel or combination of panels that provide between 5V and 9 V and current up to 100 mA will work for these lab ( and related ) activities. Volt-ampere (V-I) characteristics of a pn junction or semiconductor diode is the curve between voltage across the junction and the current through the circuit. A sun facing window would work but it would be best to open the window and remove any shades or screens that might reduce the amount of sunlight. A solar cell is basically a p-n junction diode. Set the frequency of waveform generator 1 to 20 Hz, and the horizontal time base so that at least one full 0 to VOC sweep is displayed. no clouds. Compare the different maximum powers, voltages, currents and external resistances for the different panel positions and comment on their comparison. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_solar_cells The working of a solar cell solely depends upon its photovoltaic effect hence a solar cell also known as photovoltaic cell. The objective of this Lab activity is to study and measure the output voltage and current characteristics of a photovoltaic solar panel and develop an equivalent electrical model for use in computer simulation. Solar cells are usually coated with anti-reflective materials so that they absorb the maximum amount of light energy. Our data collection is used to improve our products and services. The graph showing the VI characteristics, with V along the X-axis and I along the Y-axis is as given above; The graph is indicated in the fourth quadrant as solar cell does not draw current but supplies the same to the load; Application. 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