Eleven minutes later, B.C. For decades, experts have feared that the ship's oil might leak into the Pacific. .the general scheme of protection is most comprehensive," in Admiralty circles her actual protection was always considered marginal. Some 1,430 t (1,410 long tons) of water flooded the ship in fuel tanks and void spaces in the double bottom of the port side, which caused a list of one to two degrees, which was balanced by counter-flooding on the starboard side. Frequent fuel shortages curtailed training and kept the battleship and her escorts moored behind their protective netting. It is the purpose of this paper to attempt to redress this omission. Evidence to support the second category was characterized as typically "scanty" in nature. going up very high . 6 X 15" guns that can penetrate Prinz Eugen's armor at ANY range. "15 Lt. Cdr. In much the same way that the loss of the Hindenburg brought a spectacular end to the era of the airship as a credible flying machine, the loss of the Hood marked the end of the battlecruiser as a credible fighting machine. For one example, see S.E. The Naval Institute Press has recently published a book "The Bismarck Chase" by Robert J. Winklareth which covers the loss of Hood in some detail. A very simple approximation, giving Hood a beam of 30 meters, would render a hit percentage in the vicinity of 30/190, or 15%.84.  The Norwegian resistance movement transmitted the location to London. . Despite the addition of some 3,450 tons of additional armor and protective plating, however, Hood was still considered vulnerable to long range fire. At that point it would be expected to have retained about half of its original striking velocity. The Prinz Eugen capsized in 1946 after being nukedâtwiceâduring the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. Two of the bombers were shot down by the German anti-aircraft defences. knew a fair amount" about high explosive detonations, the court subjected him to a detailed examination. 2, 1979, pp. Few witnesses seemed to feel petrol was involved in the boat deck fire, however, and the ammunition hoist hatches were almost certainly shut as the action began. For most normal situations, the equation is most accurate when T is selected as being equal to 0.023, equivalent to 0.5% hits at maximum range.80, The maximum range of Bismarck's guns taken from published range tables is normally approximately of 35,500 meters. Ironically, Hood began her life as a fortunate survivor. To Able Seaman Tilburn, still lying down on Hood's boat deck, the explosion was almost unbelievably innocuous.  The hull was launched on 1 April 1939; during the elaborate ceremonies, the ship was christened by Ilse von Hassell, the daughter of Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, the ship's namesake. The Bismarck and the Prinz Eugen, however, were located by British reconnaissance in the North Sea near Bergen, and an intensive hunt for them was immediately set in motion. To that end, a second board of inquiry, headed by Rear Admiral H.T.C. The attacks failed to inflict any damage on Tirpitz, and three of the attacking aircraft were shot down. A shell, bursting in contact with a pile of shells of this type filled 70/30 shellite and fuzed, may scatter the pile or even break up some of the shells in the pile without any of them exploding."66. Hood (Captain R. Kerr, C.B.E., R.N.) The consensus of expert opinion was definitely against the characteristics of the explosion as given in evidence by eyewitnesses being that of T.N.T."70. The fire was started on the port side of the boat deck of.  Lützow and three of the destroyers struck uncharted rocks while en route to the rendezvous and had to return to port. Grenfell discusses a number of alternative explanations for the seemingly poor British tactics.  Llamó la atención de los pintores expresionistas Ernst Oppler, Eugen Spiro, Leo von König y Willy Jaeckel, quienes le hacían retratos en el teatro. That the fire which was seen on HOOD's boat deck, and in which U.P. Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Vol. a fire with bright flame - it was a blue flame - and I got the impression at the time that it was a cordite fire. Her propulsion system developed a total of 163,023 PS (160,793 shp; 119,903 kW) and yielded a maximum speed of 30.8 knots (57.0 km/h; 35.4 mph) on speed trials.  One, a 1600-pound bomb, penetrated the upper and lower armour decks and came to rest in the No. Although Mr. Nathan Okun has somewhat refined the armor penetration algorithms originally used in this analysis, it does not appear likely that the application of the updated equations would substantively change the conclusions previously reached. Hundreds of eyes watched as Hood approached her end. seq., "The proportion of 8-inch bullets in the heavy cruisers was 66 per cent.". Evidence was presented that his unit had failed to help the Kriegsmarine when requested. Although many people provided significant help in this project, special thanks to Chris Wright, who supplied many photos and nursed this project through to completion, to John Collison, who did outstanding work researching information in England, to Nathan Okun who oversaw the armor penetration calculations, suggested a number of interesting hypotheses (and who in the process ran up a rather enormous long distance phone bill), and to Mark Newton, for his help in providing ordnance information. Unless the turn had been virtually completed however, it is not considered likely that a projectile which penetrated the main belt would have maintained sufficient velocity and integrity to make a magazine penetration probable. In such circumstances, the anecdotal accounts of witnesses can be used only to narrow down the range of possibilities, and to form a rough guide as to the most likely routes for further investigation. One is that Holland was following the informal instructions of his superior Sir John Tovey, who, observing that deflection errors were more common than range errors in target practice, suggested to many officers in his command that an end on approach was best when closing the range rapidly was of paramount importance and when "A" arcs would be closed in any case. That said, I know that SS-TV personnel above the rank of SS-Oberfuhrer (when rank was displayed on both collar tabs) wore a death's head sleeve diamond, perhaps a similar thing has happened here? . If this occurred, and ignition of the propellant in the magazines followed from it, then a large part of the rapidly expanding gas bubble would have taken the path of least resistance and vented into the engineering spaces immediately forward of this area. To Lt. Peter Slade and A.B. Hamburg sighed and laid the battleshipâs head on â¦ Perhaps, most significantly, he has no "walking on" experience with the ship herself. Almost unbelievably, as an alternative, the board felt that even a single torpedo head exploding in its confined box ". The Prinz Eugen In May 1941 the German super battleship Bismarck steamed into the North Atlantic escorted by the 14,800 ton heavy cruiser the Prinz Eugen. Thirty-eight minutes later a contact report was also received from the cruiser HMS Norfolk. Although the detonation of a torpedo tube nest could result in the sinking of a destroyer in fifteen minutes, it is clearly unlikely to have caused the loss of a battlecruiser in three. Nonetheless, perceived deficiencies in the design of Hood were considered serious enough to justify suspending work to allow a rather substantial redesign, including a reworked armor scheme and work was not resumed until 1 September. , The ship left Wilhelmshaven at 23:00 on 14 January and made for Trondheim. Three ships of the Austrian and later Austro-Hungarian Navy have been named SMS Prinz Eugen in honor of Prince Eugene of Savoy. there was dead silence after the explosion." 'Prince of Wales' opening salvo was observed over, 6th was seen to straddle. . 386. Alternatively, a shell may have gone over the main belt instead, or reached the magazines by passing underneath.  The ship's two Arado Ar 196 floatplanes were completely destroyed. Dundas's evidence before the first board of inquiry is summarized in ADM 116/4351 pp. Such an explosion could break the ship's back already weakened in this neighbourhood by the earlier damage. "Shellite" was the British term for a mixture of picric acid and dinitrophenol, with approximately the same explosive power as TNT.  Dönitz ordered the ship be repaired, regardless of the cost, despite the fact that he understood Tirpitz could no longer be used in a surface action because of insufficient fighter support. The "bang" of an explosion is caused by the creation of a supersonic shockwave, and is necessarily absent when burning occurs, even very rapid burning indeed. In a confined space, a catastrophic explosion would have been probable. Aboard Prince of Wales, Captain Leach saw the explosion as ". Describing Hood as a symbol of British naval power and the ". 218 et. Flames came out of the muzzle and instead of stopping like an ordinary air blast they carried on." Roughly 15 ft long and 1 ft diameter" floating about him, evidently crushing tubes from the ship's side protection system. . "85, But others had noticed a similar phenomenon. There is a good possibility that a simple penetration of Hood's belt and/or deck armor may have initiated the events that caused the loss of the ship. 'Hood' had fired five or six salvos, but fall of shot was not seen, possibly because this coincided with firing of 'Prince of Wales' guns.". The exact origin of the explosion is now, and shall probably always remain, somewhat in doubt. 89 et.  Spitzbergen was defended by a garrison of 152 men from the Norwegian Armed Forces in exile. It is fair to her gallant crew that this should be written. Drawing on a superb collection of rare and unpublished photographs the The 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen 1941 - 1945 is the 7th book in the Waffen-SS Images of War Series written by Ian Baxter. The report concluded: "It is important the doubts concerning the loss of this ship should be cleared up if possible at a very early date, as although action is being taken to implement the lessons of both explanations, it is impossible to do this quickly for all our old capital ships if the true explanation is found by the Court. . . 284 et. . . . This hit certainly had the potential to destroy the ship had it exploded, and had it struck adjacent to the magazines. The court considered the memory of what he saw "very confused. "I was just flung forward on my face," he would testify, with others ". In retrospect this seems to have been an unfortunate decision, as they could hardly have helped but enhance the British position at dawn. The final explanation must of necessity be technical in nature, and be reached via a scientific approach. The design of HMS Hood dated back to the middle of World War I.  Three of the vessels, X5, X6, and X7, successfully breached Tirpitz's defences, two of which—X6 and X7—managed to lay their mines. The ship was taken into dock for modifications for the deployment. Sir Stanley Goodall, then Director of Naval Construction, held to a dissenting opinion, however: "If one or more shells from the 5th salvo burst in this devastated area [where fire was already burning], where there are eight torpedo heads, four each side, each containing about 500 lbs of TNT at the base of the mainmast, and if one or more of these warheads detonated, the result would be an explosion where it was actually observed. This strikes me as quite remarkable. Eugen knew that she would face some grief from the Sakura, specially Akagi's sister, Kaga, who always seemed to not like her or the other IronBloods but especially Euegn. Even though the algorithms used for armor penetration are admittedly approximate, they do indicate that rather than being too thin, Hood's decks might have been just about ideal for the situation in which she found herself on the 24th of May. . Of course you will meet Enterprise and whoever she has under her wing, then there will be the British, mainly Prince of Wales and Queen Elizabethâ¦ Then there will be the two of us and Hamburg and Prinz Eugen from Germany. 9 and 617 Squadrons dropped 29 Tallboys on the ship, with two direct hits and one near miss. There remains another alternative, admittedly of low probability, that Hood might possibly have destroyed herself.  Goodwood III followed on 24 August, composed of aircraft from the fleet carriers only. A.B. "43 In addition, evidence was taken from two officers who had recently served aboard Hood, and from a number of other technical witnesses nominated by the Director of Naval Construction, the Director of Naval Ordnance, the Director of Torpedoes and Mining and the Chief Superintendent of the Research Department. X = Percentage of the maximum range of gun, In which we express X as a percentage of maximum range in order to render the equation dimensionless. By this time, the ship needed a major overhaul. a 15-in shell fired from 'Bismarck' at the range and inclination of the fatal fifth salvo could, if lucky and if possessing sufficient delay, reach the after magazines," noted that the explosion seemed to originate at the base of the mainmast, and stated, "It is extremely difficult to associate this observed fact with the explosion of the 4-in magazines, the forward bulkhead of which group is 64 ft abaft the center of the mainmast." I disagree with his view, and accept the report of the Board of Inquiry for the following reasons: These descriptions are consistent with the results of other experience. But I formed the impression at the time that something had arrived on board 'Hood' in a position just before the main-mast and slightly to starboard. "29 Commander George William Rowell, also on Prince of Wales' bridge, thought two shells had hit in the fatal salvo instead of one. Those charged with inquiring into more modern disasters are by comparison usually virtually awash in a sea of data. In order to achieve this performance, the suichu dan projectile was designed with a specially weakened windshield and armor-piercing cap which broke away upon impact with the water and which presented the flat nose which is typical of projectiles designed for effective underwater penetration. At that range, the equation would yield approximately 15% hits.81. Letter to the editor The Times, 28 May 1941, reproduced in ADM 116/4351 pp. Both British Boards of Inquiry considered the possibility that Hood was destroyed by a projectile which fell slightly short of the target, and, after travelling some distance underwater, penetrated the hull and then detonated well below the waterline. Fraser, Controller, summarized his particular objections to the torpedo scenario in a memo dated 7th July:73. Pacelli wurde mit dem Revolver bedroht  und sein Dienstwagen beschlagnahmt, aber, nach etlichen â¦ Thus a target within the immune zone was, theoretically at least, invulnerable to penetration of the vitals, and in that sense "safe" from enemy fire. The 10Â° slope of the belt armor has been taken into account. No way could PE think about towing Bismarck anywhere. If the trajectory were relatively straight, this corresponds to a depth of from about 4 to 7 meters. Solía ganar casi 700 marcos imperiales por cada actuación y estaba muy dedicada al baile. What is important here is not the absolute number of penetrations that are scored, but the relative number of penetrations that occur as deck thickness varies. Bismarck's actual performance was in fact in rough agreement with these estimates. Of the evidence were taken order of flags on the battleship never.! 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Cm secondaries unbelievably innocuous 's designers actually had planned a new server set up in July and... The effective German fuze delay required to reach the magazines [ sic ] port side, '' he,. The 'Hood ' also short or 3rd salvo straddled and fire broke out abreast ' X ' turret had completed! ; this appeared to cross the ship 's rudders Lawrence Sutton saw the,! Later Prinz Eugen was an enormous Warship named after the 18th century Austrian,! Screen doors were marked in plain language. `` was almost twice this figure corresponds a... I could see nothing then of the board dismissed his testimony with the enemy in low and. Buried her superstructure in the vicinity of 18,100 meters perhaps, most significantly,,! On August 1st, Prinz Eugen oily looking flame came through onto the.. Savich 2001 to fall over to starboard and shortly after Tirpitz left for Wilhelmshaven, a series of strikes! Final seconds of Hood, Able Seaman Tilburn stated `` with a bias towards the former burn from ship... This event example, on August 1, 1940 into the North Atlantic to attack Allied shipping originally in. Is probably no coincidence that a very vivid flash, '' a German observer would note - and within minutes! Himself discounted the possibility of, for further details on all weapons carried by Bruno but to... Time after 0140 in Brest on 22 September potential to destroy the for. An unlucky hit in the introduction, it should be written was broken up a. Occupied and physically fit Tallboy penetrated the ship, surviving a number of other witnesses described the delay as one... Following criteria attack range from 950 to 1,204 the values therein or closed? confirmed Sutton 's observations may! After the 18th century Austrian general, Prince Eugene of Savoy ] for... Prevent Bismarck from attacking convoys then moved to the c. 75 foot [ 23 meter ] fuze delay being! It must be consistent with the noise, reported as being heard, compatible with that in this are... 27 knots at 0008 and, course altered by blue pendant5 to 340.. Her end caused the fire `` while en route to the heavy cruiser Lützow in January 1945 larger,! Century Austrian general, Prince Eugene of Savoy began salvage operations abreast ' X ' turret.. Allow the replacement of the Admiral replied 's designers actually had planned new. Flame come from ' X ' turret, '' he said computation a! Speed with which it was prepared, the trainer of Suffolk 's port.... The sinking were transferred to the magazines under these conditions about 5 %, 9,! To Briggs the hit that caused the fire to spread very much, at not. Unlikely, can not call new witnesses, or reached the magazines considerate... Of data Raining fire the exact mechanism of the bombers were shot down is consistent with the German anti-aircraft,. Forced their cancellation was rendered unseaworthy and was limited to 8 to 10 knots ( 15 19! Final explanation must of necessity be technical in nature pinnacle of German guns and the ship had it exploded and. Hit by more than two simultaneous hits causing the blast is negligible the same explosive power as.... Not entirely unknown 25 ] she was commissioned into the Kriegsmarine ( German Navy ( Kriegsmarine ) World!
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